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Bartholomew and Horowitz Attachment Model


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One important advance in the development of attachment questionnaires was the addition of a fourth style of attachment. Bartholomew and Horowitz presented a model that identified four categories or styles of adult attachment. [44] Their model was based on the idea attachment styles reflected people's thoughts about their partners and thought about themselves. Specifically, attachment styles depended on whether or not people judge their partners to be generally accessible and responsive to requests for support, and whether or not people judge themselves to be the kind of individuals towards which others want to respond and lend help. They proposed four categories based on positive or negative thoughts about partners and on positive or negative thoughts about self.

Attachment Theory Four Category Model Thoughts of Self
  Positive Negative
Thoughts
of
Partner Positive Secure
Comfortable with intimacy and autonomy Preoccupied
Preoccupied with relationships
Negative Dismissive
Dismissing of intimacy
Strongly independent Fearful
Fearful of intimacy
Socially avoidant

Bartholomew and Horowitz used this model to create the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ-CV). The RQ-CV consisted of four sets of statements, each describing a category or style of attachment:

Secure - It is relatively easy for me to become emotionally close to others. I am comfortable depending on others and having others depend on me. I don't worry about being alone or having others not accept me.
Dismissive - I am comfortable without close emotional relationships. It is very important to me to feel independent and self-sufficient, and I prefer not to depend on others or have others depend on me.
Preoccupied - I want to be completely emotionally intimate with others, but I often find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I am uncomfortable being without close relationships, but I sometimes worry that others don't value me as much as I value them.
Fearful - I am somewhat uncomfortable getting close to others. I want emotionally close relationships, but I find it difficult to trust others completely, or to depend on them. I sometimes worry that I will be hurt if I allow myself to become too close to others.
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Pathological narcissism is a reaction to prolonged abuse and trauma in early childhood or early adolescence. The source of the abuse or trauma is immaterial - the perpetrators could be parents, teachers, other adults, or peers. Pampering, smothering, spoiling, and "engulfing" the child are also forms of abuse - see these:

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Narcissistic and psychopathic parents and their children - click on the links:

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The Genetic Underpinnings of Narcissism

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Portrait of the Narcissist as a Young Man

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Adolescent Narcissist - A Case Study

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Encyclopedia of Narcissism and Psychopathy

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Buy 16 books and video lectures on 3 DVDs about narcissists, psychopaths, and abusive relationships

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Feb/4/2018, 6:46 am Link to this post  
 


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